Media and communication

Freedom-focused technicians


Sociologist Manuel Castells (2001) mentions various net cultures who together helped create the technology and the Internet as we know it today. Among them were the techno-meritocratic culture that created the technical basis. They consisted of a network of technologically savvy people with roots in universities and science. The technique was then further developed by the hacker culture which cooperated and communicated online in projects free from companies and institutions. Internet spread to the community in a broader sense by companies that could commercialize its use in various forms, such as e-commerce (Levy 1994). The goal in the hacker culture was to develop the technique and get better technical quality, and the need for a community and openness online in the form of open source code enabled programmers to creatively develop systems and software. Hacker culture thus went against the capitalist culture’s threat to the craft when the focus here was specifically on quality (Sennett 2006, Castells 2001). When the capitalist way to remunerate financially for a job wasn’t used they needed something else to create community and openness, and hacker culture reward was instead that there was a joy in creation itself and to share what they have done lead to a respect among like-minded people. They came together around the idea of ​​creation, to acquire knowledge and to disseminate this knowledge should be free and freedom became cultural values ​​(Levy 1994). Hackers lived by a form of gift culture where you contributed something that meant development and then expected something in return of the others.



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